DockerDebugInfo.ps1 into a PowerShell should work out of the box.
Script execution is disabled by default on a current version of Windows 10. I needed to change the ExecutionPolicy like below before DockerDebugInfo.ps1 could be used:
Set-ExecutionPolicy -ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned
Since changing ExecutionPolicies can be dangerous, the Docker for Windows docs should explain what happens when changing the local default. A link to https://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh847748.aspx might also help.
I also needed to run the command with a fully qualified path like below, maybe this could be made more convenient?