Install Docker without HyperV/VirtualBox/VMware support on Windows

No. Docker is heavily build on deep Linux kernel features, which don’t exist on windows. Thats why Docker Desktop uses a VM.
The experimental version of Docker desktop can use WSL2 as backend, which is a somewhat native, non virtualized linux kernel in Windows. This requires the windows insider program tho.

But I suggest that you switch to a linux vm, since docker desktop works under windows but causes a lot of problems.