This is by far the best docker cookbook i have found for chef
The very short version is you install docker using the docker_service LWRP to install and configure the engine (there a so many flags to fiddle with to meet your needs)
docker_service 'default' do
action [:create, :start]
Then depending on how much you want chef to deploy your environment, you can look at commands like this.
docker_image 'busybox' do
docker_container 'an echo server' do
command "nc -ll -p 1234 -e /bin/cat"