Docker to create reproducible build enviornment for desktop aplication

I have a desktop GUI application developed using (C++/ QT IFW). The repository for this application is in gitlab. Gitlab CI/CD is configured using gitlab-ci.yml file. The gitlab runner installed on windows server 2012, will build the desktop application. The output of the build (.exe application) is compressed to zip format and delivered to artifactory server. The end user downloads the artifact (.ZIP file) and installs the application on their Windows 7/10 system. Suppose, I want to build on new windows server 2016, I have to install all the build tools along with the gitlab runner. How can I use docker in this scenario? I want to use docker to create or reproduce build enviornment.

* Create a docker image for build tools?
* build the source code inside the docker container
*  upload to the artifactory server the output of build (.exe application) in compressed zip format.
* Deliver the compressed ZIP file for the end user via artifactory server
* The end user downloads the ZIP file from artifactory server and installs the tool on their local machine.