Inline and local caching with multi-stage builds

I want to clarify some caching behavior that I have observed but not found clearly documented. Consider a Dockerfile like:

FROM quay.io/centos/centos:stream8 as base
RUN dnf install git

FROM base AS build
RUN dnf install make gcc
RUN mkdir -p /opt/build && curl -L https://example.com/code.tar.gz | tar xz /opt/build
RUN cd /opt/build && ./configure --with-pic
RUN make -C /opt/build

FROM base AS final
COPY --from=build /opt/build/app /bin/app

When I build this locally with DOCKER_BUILDKIT=1 docker build --build-arg BUILDKIT_INLINE_CACHE=1 --target=final ..., I see that changes to the flags given to ./configure in the build stage cause the ./configure and make RUN steps to be re-run but not the dnf install and curl steps. If I then push the image to a registry, clear the local cache with docker builder prune, and run docker build again with --cache-from pointing at the pushed image, a change to the ./configure flags results in all the steps in the build stage being re-run.

My understanding of what is happening is that when using the inline cache only the /opt/build/app file is written into the docker image along with hashed metadata about the steps in the build stage that generated it but no other data generated from the build stage is written into the image. Thus when using --cache-from, when docker detects a change in the build stage, it needs to run all the steps again. However, when running the build locally, docker has an additional cache that matches steps based on their history and that can be used for the intermediate steps of a multi-stage build. These cached steps are not written into the image.

I believe these intermediate steps could be captured for future caching by building with --target=build, pushing the build image, and using --cache-from twice, once for the build image and once for the final image. Also, I believe using --cache-to=type=registry,mode=max could store all the intermediate layers.

Is this all correct?

My main motivation for asking is a discussion with a colleague. They would like the final three steps in the build stage to be condensed into a single step to avoid writing unnecessary data into the image. For a single stage image, I agree that that is better practice for keeping the image small. However, here it seems that if we only target the final stage then we do not end up with intermediate data written into the image any way and keeping the steps separated allows for some local caching which is convenient – for example it saves needing to curl the source code every time that the ./configure flags are adjusted while debugging.

Some questions:

  • Are there other nuances to caching and image size to consider here?
  • Is there a way to inspect the inline cache to compare the two cases? Is that what docker history shows?
  • Is using a build stage to split what would be one step into multiple for readability / caching a legitimate use case or is it overly relying on a detail of how inline caching works?

Some notes:

  • I built the image with the steps combined and found that docker image list reported the same size.
  • Breaking out a step into multiple in a separate stage for better caching could be seen as a debugging trick that should be removed when the debugging is done.