How do we go about doing this on the mac version of docker:
That’s a great question. So far as I know, OS/X does not use systemd/systemctl. So, the doc page you refer to is probably not applicable for Docker for Mac, since it is oriented toward controlling the docker daemon/service via systemd.
I believe the adapter-specific proxy settings would generally be in effect for the docker bridge, i.e. Apple -> System Preferences -> Network -> -> Advanced -> Proxies
Hope this helps.