So, everything you could do within Visual Studio in a container would be command-line based, so you would be limited to what you can execute using the devenv.exe file (aka Visual Studio). It looks like that example is creating an app that is using what looks like WinForm, you wouldn’t actually be able to run it from the container itself.
If you are already using Windows Server 2016 directly in a VM, you’d be better off just installing Visual Studio within that and building/running the solution.
If you wanted to use the image to build, the easiest way to go about it would to put the solution files in a directory in the server 2016 VM, and start an interactive session with the container w/ that directory mounted to the container as a volume. You would use this command to do so.
docker run -it -v (directory of solution):C:\Solution alpacamybags/msbuildlite
Once the container is running, you would just invoke MSBuild, point to the solution, and just provide any arguments you need
msbuild C:\Solution(SolutionName.sln) (additional arguments)
The compiled code with be within the (directory of solution)\bin on your server 2016 VM once the compilation is complete