To install Docker CE, you need a maintained version of CentOS 7. Archived versions aren’t supported or tested.
The centos-extras repository must be enabled. This repository is enabled by default, but if you have disabled it, you need to re-enable it.
The overlay2 storage driver is recommended."
So looks like all kernels included in CentOs 7 and above are supported.
Also you can run old docker ce version in a new kernel version, but i think is easier upgrade the docker version at the same time of your kernel.