So I think I at least partially found a solution or workaround to this issue.
I hope this helps someone else facing a similar issue.
I read on a post somewhere that loading visual studio with power saving mode fixed an issue with it appearing in a blank white dialog box.
So I switched to a more robust power plan and I began to see the text and graphics in the edge install that was running on my machine.
I wanted the stable version, so I uninstalled the edge version completely with a powershell script I found.
When I ran the stable version installer, the dialog box was still blank. I remembered someone said to just restart after seeing this blank installer dialog. I waited 10 minutes for it to fully install then rebooted.
When windows started up, Docker was running and I could finally see the text, buttons, graphics in Docker for Windows’ UI.
I would say, this is still an issue that the devs at Docker need to fix or at least warn about as a prerequisite to installation especially since the installer window continues to be blank even with the more robust power settings.