It looks like the OP’s problem is different from mine but I’m going to post my results here because the title will lead a lot of folks to this thread.
This is for Version 18.03.0-ce-rc1-win54 (16164)
This was posted elsewhere and I don’t remember by whom so I can’t credit it. I didn’t try this solution when I first read it because it just seemed so odd but when I finally did try it, it solved the problem for me.
The issue for me, and for others, was installing Docker for Windows with any network or Internet connection. I think the install triggers Docker to connect online for something and that connection fails and things break. The install completes but Docker won’t start or at least won’t go far enough in starting for you to get any indication. Nothing I could think of, reinstalling, repair installing, or anything else would work.
Finally, based on what I’d read in at least one post here or elsewhere, I disconnected from all networks and then ran the installer. I started Docker the first time while still not connected to any network and the sign-in dialog opened. I connected my network, signed in, and then Docker completed loading and from then on it’s worked just fine.
I know it sounds strange and unlikely, but it’s worked for me and at least one other.