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Docker Desktop gives "Docker failed to initialize"

I downloaded the current version of Docker Desktop and installed it, deselecting WSL2 (I want to run only Windows containers), on a VirtualBox VM running current Windows 10 Professional.

Windows Containers optional feature is enabled.

But when starting Docker Desktop just gives me a white messagebox informing me that “Docker failed to initialize” and after a while a .NET Framework unhandled exception.

Docker works for me with Windows containers on Windows Server and DockerMSFTProvider.

What am I doing wrong? Does Docker Desktop require Hyper-V even for Windows containers with process isolation? I have no need for Linux containers.

I was having the same error when I downloaded a Windows 10 Pro update recently. It probably wasn’t the same issue you are having though because I just fixed my problem by uninstalling and then reinstalling Docker. I’m not certain, but I think Docker may need Hyper-V to be enabled on Windows 10 regardless of how you use it. This requires that you have Windows 10 Pro.